Nanorobotics is the new prospect of developing highly advanced robots whose dimensions are in the scale of a nanometer ( 10-9 meters). The nanorobots can be named as also other names such as nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines, or nanomitesetc. These name have also been frequently used to describe different type of modern nanorobotics devices which are currently under the process of research and development
Nanorobotics theory in nanomedicine:
Nanorobots can be defined as "swallow the doctor" in modern nanomedicine. The idea was first explained into Feynman's 1959 essay there's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. As nanorobots are microscopic in size, it will possibly be required for high numbers of them to perform together to execute different kind of microscopic and macroscopic tasks. The most important theoretical aspect of nanorobotics includes specific design issues such as sensing, power communication, navigation, manipulation, locomotion, and different onboard computation during the emergency of medical context. Nanorobots may also be applied to identify the specific chemicals or toxic materials and can provide early warning signal of different organ failure or tissue rejection. It can also be used to take biometric measurements. They may be employed to monitor the general health of an individual.
These devices have several utilities in a variety of industrial applications. Research is ongoing into using them in the oil industry also. More over, recent research is finding their use in nanophotonics to create light more efficiently. Computer circuits can be constructed by these small devices. They can form circuits on a very small scale and will give scope for the preparation of extremely tiny processors and microchips. Finally speaking, the construction of nanobots may be synthetic or biological.
The goal of some scientists has been to create a completely mechanical nanorobot; however, a hybrid device possessing biological and robotic features may be the most practical idea.
To qualify as a real nanorobot, the tool will have to have huge mobility, the ability to work in processing information. Ideally, it would also be able to self-replicate. Scientists envision the manufacture of a functional nanite in approximately 25 years.
DNA machine or Nubots
Nubot can be defined as "nucleic acid robot." which are basically an organic molecular machines whose sizes are in nanoscale.
DNA configuration can provide various means to form 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices. DNA based tools can be utilized using small kind of molecules, proteins and other molecules like DNA. Biological circuit gates DNA materials have been manipulated as molecular machines to help drug delivery for targeting diseased cells. Such material may work smartly as biomaterial drug system delivery.
The use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials deliver us a possible way to create nanorobots for general medical uses such as surgical instrumentation, drug delivery and diagnosis. This method for preparing on nanotechnology range is recently in use in the electronics application. Practically nanorobots must be integrated as nanoelectronics tools that will help tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation.
Synthetic molecular motors are nanomachines that have been used machine-like motions when confined to the surface of a macroscopic material. The surface attached motors have potential application to move and make position on a surface.
This technique use the biological microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli. Electromagnetic fields normally actuate the motion of this type of biological integrated device.
University of Nebraska Chemists have created a humidity gauge by fusing a bacteria to a silicone computer chip.
Retroviruses could be attached to cells and can replace DNA. They can pass through a process called reverse transcription to provide genetic materials in a vector. Generally, these kind of devices are Pol - Gag genes of the virus for the Capsid and Delivery system.
This technique defined as retroviral Gene Therapy can re-engineer cellular DNA by utilizing of viral vectors. This approach has appeared in the form of Retroviral, Adenoviral, and Lentiviral gene delivery systems. In this kind of these Gene Therapy vectors have been investigated in cats to send genes into the genetic modified animal.