BACTERIA/BACTERIAL PREPARATIONS AS ADJUVANTS!!!
BACTERIA OR BACTERIAL PREPARATIONS AS ADJUVANTS!! Why do we administer vaccines?? The answer is quite simple. Just to prevent the attack of many diseases. Everyone is injected with vaccine preparations right from childhood - Polio vaccine to recent Cervical cancer vaccine (for women). These are the antigenic preparations which causes stimulation of the respective antibodies that remain in the body and fight against the organism once it attacks us. Just like army soldiers are constantly on their toes in the borders!! Sometimes these vaccine preparations are not enough to elicit the required immuno response. In such cases, adjuvants are added. Adjuvants are the materials which enhances the cellular or humoral response to an antigen. Thus they elicit "earlier, long-lasting, more potent" immuno response. Here I am going to discuss about some bacteria that are used as such adjuvants. Mostly the mycobacteria are used as adjuvants -
Corynebacterium parvum, Corynebacterium granulosum and B.pertussis.
It is well known that these organisms are highly toxic and exhibit adverse reactions but once they are purified, all the toxic properties are minimized and the immunostimulatory activity is retained.
Investigation on the mycobacterial cell after fractionation resulted in the detection of two compounds viz. Trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and Muramyl dipeptide (MDP). TDM consists of Trehalose molecule associated with two molecules of mycolic acid in the mycobacterial cell wall. It is relatively non toxic. MDM is a pyrogen also found in cell wall and is relatively too toxic.
With the gaining importance of TDM and MDP being used as adjuvants, several synthetic preparations came to limelight which have good eliciting capacity with nontoxic properties. Examples include- threonyl-MDP, muramyl tripeptide and murabutide. Threonlyn-MDP is included in the formulation known as Syntex adjuvant formulation-1 (SAF-1). Animal studies showed that it elicits good B and T cell response and is non toxic.
THIS BLOG IS FREE OF PLAGIARISM.
Ref: : Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Concepts and Applications by Gary Walsh, Wiley Publications, 2007 edition, Page no: 414-415.
THE FORTNIGHT TIP!!
Do you believe in Luck?? I hope you all do. I asked a student in my class after he came from an interview section. How was your performance? The student immediately replied Sir luck didn't favour me today.
If you are the supreme authority of yourself and driver of your own chariot, how come this luck took the vantage?? Just think for a moment. If you succeed in your life you 'll be known to the world as a genius but if you fail then the original facet of the world is known. No doubt they say, Failure is the stepping stone to success. A good example in this context, everyone is well aware of the matinee idol- Amitabh Bacchchan. But only few knew that he was once rejected as a news reader in a famous TV channel because his audio skills were below the required line. But today, look at him..I need not say more!!
So dear students, this is the time where many of you might be giving your trials in Interviews, or as simple as in VIVA VOCE. Just remember one thing, Give your 100% effort. Hardwork pays first even before Success reaches you even in dictionary!! Good Luck!!