BIOMARKERS Our body is built up with various protecting and preserving elements yet in bringing out surprising discoveries.... One such is the biomarkers!! Biomarkers are the chemical substances released in the body which indicates the present condition/ state and also the extent of risk to a particular tissue or organ. They are normally present in the tissues and organs in small amounts, yet give out massive information about the health status! Biomarkers  can be detected in biofluids from the tissue or organ by blood test or urine test. These biofluids contain organ or tissue specific proteins useful for diagnosis. Biomarkers can be screened by Various Types of Screening Tests such as: * Proteomic analyses-- for protein biomarkers (e.g., PCa for prostate cancer, CA-125 in ovarian cancer). * Gene expression analyses identify certain gene abnormalities as possible causes for the tumor. * Chromosomal abnormalities are used to identify gene abnormalities (e.g., HER-2 expression in breast cancer). When an organ is facing risk, it releases "Biomarkers". Measuring of these biomarkers helps diagnose, evaluate, and monitor patients with suspected diseases. HERE ARE FEW IMPORTANT CLINICAL CONDITIONS AND THE USE OF BIOMARKERS IN THEM Role in Cancer Detection:  The dormant Cancer cells (oncogenes) can sometimes make these biomarkers. When the amount of these substances rises above normal, cancer might be present in the body. Examples of biomarkers include- * CA 125 (ovarian cancer), * CA 15-3 and 27-29 (breast cancer), * CEA-Carcinoembryonic Antigen (For Ovarian, Lung, Breast, Pancreas, and gastrointestinal cancers), * PSA- Prostate-Specific Antigen (For Prostate Cancer). Role in Cardiac diseases:  Cardiac biomarkers are released during acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This condition is caused by a sudden decrease in the amount of blood and oxygen reaching the heart. (Termed ischemia) leading to angina (chest pain). When blood flow to the heart is blocked or reduced, it causes heart cells to die, triggering an acute myocardial infarction (AMI or heart attack). Leading to permanent cardiac muscle damage. Cardiac biomarker tests are ordered to help detect the presence of ACS and to evaluate the condition to begin an appropriate therapy. Currently troponin is the best biomarker used for detecting the heart damage. Troponin is the regulatory protein molecule. Other cardiac biomarkers and their uses: * Protein- hs-RP determines future heart risk. * Hormone-BNP and NTpro-BNP- diagnose evaluate and monitor therapy. * Enzyme CK and its isoenzyme. * Protein-myoglobulin- oxygen storing Kidney Diseases  The novel biomarkers are useful for detecting the kidney diseases. For acute kidney diseases they include a plasma panel (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C) and a urine panel (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-18, and kidney injury molecule-1). For chronic kidney disease, these include a similar plasma panel and a urine panel (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, asymetric dimethylarginine, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein). Biomarkers will help to distinguish between the various etiologies of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. In psychosomatic disorders -A useful way of finding genetic causes for diseases such as schizophrenia has been the use of a special kind of biomarker called an endophenotype. As Biotracers in Medicine: Biomarkers are used as biotracers, injected into the body to examine the organ function and other aspects of health. Like rubidium chloride for detecting the heart condition. Biomarker's clinical importance:  * To Study the etiology and pathology of the disease. * In identifying early stages of disease, for better understanding of the diagnosis and appropriate therapy. * The biomarker useful for assessing the duration and severity of disease and reducing exposure to risk factors of disease. * For predicting progression and adverse clinical outcomes. * And in the Assessment of individual and group susceptibility and dose relationship With the dawn of modern science biomarkers seem to have opened new contributions to many of the diseases. This remarkable venture shall provide faster and safer methods to save many more lives in future! References: http://www.biomarkersconsortium.org/  http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articles/PMC2717826/reload=0;jsessionid=BCD6E98ED8630...  http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/cardiac_biomarkers/...  http://journals.lww.com/co-pediatrics/Abstract/2011/04000/Biomarkers_for...  THIS BLOG DOES NOT CONTAIN PLAGIARIZED MATERIAL.