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It may be due to
  • Insulin deficiency
  • Reduced utilization of glucose
  • Intracellular hypoglycaemia
  • Extracellular hyperglycaemia
Insulin is secreted by the beta cells of pancreas,
which is responsible for maintaining the glucose levels in the blood (
main source of energy ).
In a diabetic patient, abnormal insulin metabolism
leads to reduced utilization of glucose, which inturn results in an
elevated levels of glucose ( condition known as hyperglycaemia ).
Type 1 diabetes / Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
In type 1 diabetes beta cells are destroyed, hence
they cannot synthesize enough insulin hormone that is required by the
body to carryout its normal functions.
Other causes of type 1 diabetes are exposure to harmful toxins, virus or sometimes stress.
This type of diabetes is more common among children and young adults.


Main symptom is hyperglycemia,

increased thirst,

abnormal hunger,

frequent urination,

weight loss, and


Type 2 diabetes / Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

Insulin production by the pancreas
is normal but the body cells become resistant and non-responsive to
insulin, which leads to diabetes. Hence the cell membrane becomes
impermeable to glucose.

Other causes are : reduced insulin secretion, increased production of glucose by the liver.

It is more common incase of middle age adults and elder people.


Prolonged hyperglycemia, may lead to obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, delayed healing, tiredness, and blurred vision.

Gestational diabetes

It is common among pregnant women and is due to abnormal changes in the hormonal level during pregnancy.

are many side effects and complications associated with diabetes. Hence
early diagnosis and proper treatment is necessary to prevent any
adverse effects.

Treatment depends on the type of diabetes.

Proper diet, weight management, healthy lifestyle,
enough physical activity, proper monitoring are necessary to control


  1. http://www.dhss.mo.gov/diabetes/DMOverview.pdf
  2. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pathophysiology-of-diabetes-mellitus.html
  3. http://www.caninsulin.com/Pathophysiology.asp

About the Author

M Leela Keerthi's picture
Author: M Leela Keerthi


Lakshmana Murthy's picture

You have done a good job but can you tell me how the Beta cells of pancreas is destroyed &what are the receptors that recieve isulin in our body
Uma Pratyusha's picture

Hi Leela Keerthi, Does the gestational diabetes remain even after delivery or is it occurring during the gestational period only?


Uma Prathyusha

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