Evaluation of Tablets

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1. General Appearance:
The general appearance of a tablet, its identity and general elegance is essential for consumer acceptance, for control of lot-to-lot uniformity and tablet-to-tablet uniformity. The control of general appearance involves the measurement of size, shape, color, presence or absence of odor, taste etc.

2. Size & Shape:
It can be dimensionally described & controlled. The thickness of a tablet is only variables. Tablet thickness can be measured by micrometer or by other device. Tablet thickness should be controlled within a ± 5% variation of standard value.

3. Unique identification marking:
These marking utilize some form of embossing, engraving or printing. These markings include company name or symbol, product code, product name etc.

4. Organoleptic properties:
Color distribution must be uniform with no mottling. For visual color comparison compare the color of sample against standard color.

5. Hardness:
Tablet requires a certain amount of strength or hardness and resistance to friability to withstand mechanical shakes of handling in manufacture, packaging and shipping. Hardness generally measures the tablet crushing strength.

Friability of a tablet can determine in laboratory by Roche friabilator. This consist of a plastic chamber that revolves at 25 rpm, dropping the tablets through a Distance of six inches in the friabilator, which is then operate for 100 revolutions. The tablets are reweighed. Compress tablet that lose less than 0.1 to 0.5 % of the Tablet weigh are consider acceptable.

7. Weight Variation test (U.S.P.):
Take 20 tablet and weighed individually. Calculate average weight and compare the individual tablet weight to the average. The tablet pass the U.S.P. test if no more that 2 tablets are outside the percentage limit and if no tablet differs by more than 2 times the percentage limit.

8. Content Uniformity Test:
Randomly select 30 tablets. 10 of these assayed individually. The Tablet pass the test if 9 of the 10 tablets must contain not less than 85% and not more than 115% of the labeled drug content and the 10th tablet may not contain less than 75% and more than 125% of the labeled content.
If these conditions are not met, remaining 20 tablet assayed individually and none may fall out side of the 85 to 115% range.

9. Disintegration Test (U.S.P.):
The U.S.P. device to test disintegration uses 6 glass tubes that are 3” long; open at the top and 10 mesh screen at the bottom end. To test for disintegration time, one tablet is placed in each tube and the basket rack is positioned in a 1-L beaker of water, simulated gastric fluid or simulated intestinal fluid at 37 ± 20 C such that the tablet remain 2.5 cm below the surface of liquid on their upward movement and not closer than 2.5 cm from the bottom of the beaker in their downward movement. Move the basket containing the tablets up and down through a distance of 5-6 cm at a frequency of 28 to 32 cycles per minute. Floating of the tablets can be prevented by placing perforated plastic discs on each tablet.
According to the test the tablet must disintegrate and all particles must pass through the 10 mesh screen in the time specified. If any residue remains, it must have a soft mass.
Disintegration time: Uncoated tablet: 5-30 minutes
Coated tablet: 1-2 hours

10.Dissolution Test:
A) Apparatus-1 (Basket Type): A single tablet is placed in a small wire mesh basket attached to the bottom of the shaft connected to a variable speed motor. The basket is immersed in a dissolution medium (as specified in monograph) contained in a 1000 ml flask. The flask is cylindrical with a hemispherical bottom. The flask is maintained at 37±0.50C by a constant temperature bath. The motor is adjusted to turn at the specified speed and sample of the fluid are withdrawn at intervals to determine the amount of drug in solutions.

B) Apparatus-2 (Paddle Type ): It is same as apparatus-1, except the basket is replaced by a paddle. The dosage form is allowed to sink to the bottom of the flask before stirring. For dissolution test U.S.P. specifies the dissolution test medium and volume, type of apparatus to be used, rpm of the shaft, time limit of the test and assay procedure for.
The test tolerance is expressed as a % of the labeled amount of drug dissolved in the time limit.

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About the Author

Namanm's picture
Author: Namanm


Dr.S.Gunasakaran's picture

Dear Mr.Naman,

Very informative blog.

Dr.S.Gunasakaran,MBBS,MD. Head - Clinical Research & Medical Affairs www.clinicalresearchsociety.org/forum

Zarrin Faria's picture

Dear a gud blog....it would be better if you can specify these test for all types of tablets eg; enteric coated, chewable...etc.
Faria Zarrin

Sudha Thamarapalli's picture

hello naman,

u hav provided good information regarding evaluation of conventional tablets. it would be better if you add evaluation tests and specifications for controlled release tablets also..




Sirisha Pingali's picture

I could see a mini lachmann over here..What are the limits for dissolution tests for coated and uncoated tablets??

Sirisha Pingali


Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.



that's very good and informative.............good to see all the tests we learnt together as a single leaflet.......

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