AN INTRODUCTION TO TABLETS

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AN INTRODUCTION TO TABLETS

AN INTRODUCTION TO TABLETS

Hello dear pharma bloggers here I present a very simple topic which every one is very well versed with, but this is just a review sort of thing This is blog is aimed to cater the needs of those pharma fresher graduates who have just completed their graduation and looking to find their future in the phrama industry rather than higher education. If you seem to have interest in the production department or quality control department you need to have a keen knowledge of tablets and capsules. Our team ASSIMILATORS have made a small attempt, I hope you all would like this. So coming to the present topic in this blog I give an outline of tablets and its importance. TABLETS: Tablets are the solid dosage form which are most accepted and widely used in the medical therapy,

(4)

As per IP2007 tablet may be defined as Tablets are solid dosage forms each containing a unit dose of one or more medicaments. They are intended for oral administration A tablet consist of active medicament along with excipents which are in powder form are compressed or pressed into a solid dosage form. About two third drugs prescribed are in solid dosage form and tablets include half of them (1). Tablets are majorly classified into following categories (As per IP2007): (2, 3) 1) Uncoated Tablets: These are a single layer or more than one layer tablet consisting of active ingredient with the excipents, no additional cover is applied on to it after the compression. 2) Coated Tablets: These tablets have an additional coating layer on it after the tablet is compressed, the coating layer may be applied with sugar, gums, resins, inactive or insoluble fillers, plasticisers, polyhydric alcohols, waxes.

(5) Coated Tablets

3. Dispersible Tablets: These are the film coated or unhcoated tablets which form an uniform dispersion when suspended in water

.(6) Dispersible Tablets

4. Effervescent Tablets: These are the tablets which are uncoated and are intended to be dissolved and produce an dispersion before they are administered the dissolution is achevied by the reaction between an organic acid and bicarbonate which produce CO2, thus produced CO2 will disintegrate the tablet so which dissolves in the solution to produce an suspension which is rapidly absorbed.

(7) Effervescent Tablets

(8) Effervescent Tablets

5. Modified-release Tablets: These are the coated or uncoated tablets which are designed in such a way that the rate or location of the active ingredient released is modified. It includes enteric coated tablets, prolong release tablet, delay release tablet.

1)

Enteric-coated Tablets: these are also called as gastro resistant tablets as they are resistant to the gastric juices, these are formulated by coating the tablet with anionic polymer of methylacrylic acid and their esters or by coating with cellulose acetyl pthylate

Ex: erythromycin, NSAI DS,

2)

Prolonged- release Tablets: these are also called as sustain release tablets or extended release tablets is formulated in such a way that the active ingredient is released for a prolong duration of time and is available in systemic circulation after administration.

6. Soluble Tablets: These are coated or uncoated tablets which are dissolved in water before they are administered.

(9)soluble tablets

7. Tablets for Use in the Mouth: these are the tablet formulations which are intended to be show local action in the buccal cavity.

These include buccal tablet , Sublingual Tablets, Troche or lozenges.

Buccal tablets are placed in between the cheek and gingival,

Sublingual tablets are placed underneath the tongue eg: glyceryl trinitrate.

(10)buccal tablet

(11) sublingual tablet

8. Tablets for other routes of administration: these include implantable tablets, vaginal tablets, these are inserted in to the rectum or vagina for their local or systemic action.

The tablet formulations have the following advantage (3):

O

These are easy and very convenient to use

O

As these are unit dosage form fixed dose is administered

O

Unstable API, bitter tasting tablets can be formulated as coated tablets which mask the bitter taste and are safe guard the API

O

Modified drug release rate and duration tablets can increase the therapeutic effect and increase the patient compliance by reducing the frequency of drug administration.

O

These are very inexpensive dosage forms when compared to other dosage forms

O

The physical stability, microbial stability, and chemical stability of tablet are superior to other dosage forms.

Disadvantages of tablets are:

O

The systemic availabity of the drug depends on many physiological factors

O

The onset of action is less when compared to IV route. (except sublingual tablets)

O

Geriatric and children's of small age cannot swallow the tablets.

This blog is free from plagiarism

Reference:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tablet
  2. Indian pharmacopoeia 2007 volume II page number 44- 47
  3. Pharmaceutical dosage form and design by david jones pharmaceutical press 2008 edition pg.no-203-210
  4. http://www.mayureshmercantile.com/full-images/739534.jpg
  5. http://www.pacificpharmaceuticals.com/produc_images/plasilchart.gif
  6. http://www.mepha.com/PublishingImages/Content/dispersible.jpg
  7. http://www.anh-europe.org/files/imagecache/full_image/newsitems/Effervescent%20tablet%20in%20water.jpg
  8. http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/contractor_images/unither/2-effervescent-tablets.jpg
  9. http://www.pharmainfo.net/files/images/stories/article_images/SolubleTablets.jpg
  10. http://www.dewitt.wramc.amedd.army.mil/department/pharmacy/dewittimages/BuccalTablets.gif
  11. http://www.medicalassistedtreatment.org/mediac/400_0/media/23howtotake.jpg
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About the Author

Nandini's picture
Author: Nandini

Comments

Ph. Bhagavan P S RPh's picture

Good one. But please complete the write up with information on how to handle, how to store, how to swallow / use, some don'ts and do's, to-cut / not-to-cut, vehicles to swallow etc... good luck

Bhagavan P.S. B Pharm

Rtd. Dy Dir.(Pharmacy),Govt of Karnataka, India
Nandini's picture

respected bhagvan sir, thank you very much for going through my blog and leaving a comment on it. this is just a part of our team topic thr other fragments are to about to come, which will be presented by my team mates, once all the topics are presented i shall update my blog with the links by following them one can get a complete information of the topic. i am sorry to say this, actually the other participants are busy in the reserch work and job search so this work is been delayed and not presented at an streach. but very soon they will be followed. thank you once again for you valuable suggestion sir. hope you guide us in future too.

with regards Nandini. TEAM ASSIMILATORS.

Amol Dhiaman's picture

Really a very creative blog with explanatory pictures. With Regards Amol Dhiman Team GLORY

Amol Dhiaman

Nandini's picture

hello amol, thank you for going through my blog an for your comments.

with regards Nandini. TEAM ASSIMILATORS.

Ankur sood's picture

very good and nice blog. with regards Ankur sood
Nandini's picture

hello ankur, thank you for going through my blog an for your comments.

with regards Nandini. TEAM ASSIMILATORS.

Gangadhar Hari's picture

Good work nandini. Keep it up. Hope you would come up with more such blogs.
Nandini's picture

hello gagadhar, thank you for going through my blog and for your comment. i shall strive more harder to present more better blogs in future, thank you for your support!.

with regards Nandini. TEAM ASSIMILATORS.

Siva Mavuduru's picture

Hi Nandini Good one Kepp it up I have a doubt. is film coating not a obstruction for the dispersion in case of dispersable tablets? Do sublingual tablets have equal or more rapid onset of action than IV?

Nandini's picture

hello ganesh , thank you for coming up with a good question. no it may not be an obstruction for the dispersible tablets. actually these dispersable tablets are intended to get dispersed with in the glassful of water and form a suspension or get dispersed in mouth, for such an mechanism of dispersion a film coating suitable for it is used, like coating with eudragit etc. there are many formulations which are film coated dispersable tablets, a few are intended for the masking the taste of the active ingredient while a few are intended to to improve the appearance of the tablet.

with regards Nandini. TEAM ASSIMILATORS.

K Rajakrishna's picture

hi ganesh, you seem to be very interested in film coating!.... yes there are many formulations in the market too that have film coating for dispersable tablets please follow these links they include formulations and an article on film coating 1) http://www.iptonline.com/articles/public/Rohm1.pdf 2)http://www.medicines.ie/medicine/6905/SPC/Zovirax+200+mg+Dispersible+Tab... 3)http://home.intekom.com/pharm/hexal/prohexal.html 4)http://www.megmuspharmaceutical.com/tablets.htm 5)http://www.akums.in/list-dossier.html very soon i am going to come up with a blog on film coating. just not finding time with my interview schedules so i am not able to present it, but very soon i will present that too.
Siva Mavuduru's picture

Hey Nandini I have a small suggestion. this may be not that important. but the gap is coming in between the statements. to avoid this i have a small suggestion. After typing with the use enabling the rich text, disable it. then you can find the gaps between the statements. so remove those gaps and this will reduce these gaps which eventually leads to the removal of the gaps between the statements. but make sure that you didn't cause any harm to html commands.
K Rajakrishna's picture

hello ganesh nice one but the issue here is completely different man, actually she has worked out the material in word then i have compiled it and tried to upload it on site, the hitch here is that when i go for enabled text it looks good but not at the end... if u have anything to go bullzeye in then do share it, happy to receive your suggestion. as she is busy in her project submission i have replied to her comment.
Siva Mavuduru's picture

Yeah buddy after disabling the rich text, you can find gaps between the statements. delete that. the problem will get solved.
K Rajakrishna's picture

hello. ganesh, ya it can be done i have done the same thing for this blog too its very time consuming and i have put all my efforts to workout this one but still there are gaps left, the same thing happened with narmadha's bog too. i hope tht admin comes up with a suitable solution for this. any ways thank you for your suggestion, next time i shall try to upload it without gaps.
Siva Mavuduru's picture

if it doesn't work, don't worry nothing will happen. and i think administrator can't do this, its the basic problem i think associated with html. they will do whatever possible. leave it buddy. don't worry about. it doesn't matter. keep rocking.
Siva Mavuduru's picture

good answer can you come up with my second question about sublingual tablets. i am bit surprised to see that they have rapid onset of action, but how?
Nandini's picture

hello ganesh sublingual tablets have a rapid onset of action: the onset of action drug would depend on the absorption of the, for a sublingual tablet the absorption is very fast as the thickness of the sublingual layer is only 100 to 200 microns, and moreover the vascular supply is also very high to the sublingual ares which enables fast absorption and quick distribution through out the body, drugs that are given by sublingual route are cardiovascular drugs, steroids, barbiturates drugs like isosorbide and triglycerides which are supposed to show rapid onset of action for cardiac failure are mostly selected by this route.

with regards Nandini. TEAM ASSIMILATORS.

Vishnu Murthy Vummaneni's picture

What type of tablets will you suggest for a drug belonging to a. Class II b. Class III

Vishnu Murthy Vummaneni

Madan Venkatesh's picture

are they effective as injection, parenterals.....

REGARD'S MADAN.K.V

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