AN INTRODUCTION TO TABLETS
Hello dear pharma bloggers here I present a very simple topic which every one is very well versed with, but this is just a review sort of thing This is blog is aimed to cater the needs of those pharma fresher graduates who have just completed their graduation and looking to find their future in the phrama industry rather than higher education. If you seem to have interest in the production department or quality control department you need to have a keen knowledge of tablets and capsules. Our team ASSIMILATORS have made a small attempt, I hope you all would like this. So coming to the present topic in this blog I give an outline of tablets and its importance. TABLETS: Tablets are the solid dosage form which are most accepted and widely used in the medical therapy,
As per IP2007 tablet may be defined as Tablets are solid dosage forms each containing a unit dose of one or more medicaments. They are intended for oral administration A tablet consist of active medicament along with excipents which are in powder form are compressed or pressed into a solid dosage form. About two third drugs prescribed are in solid dosage form and tablets include half of them (1). Tablets are majorly classified into following categories (As per IP2007): (2, 3) 1) Uncoated Tablets: These are a single layer or more than one layer tablet consisting of active ingredient with the excipents, no additional cover is applied on to it after the compression. 2) Coated Tablets: These tablets have an additional coating layer on it after the tablet is compressed, the coating layer may be applied with sugar, gums, resins, inactive or insoluble fillers, plasticisers, polyhydric alcohols, waxes.
(5) Coated Tablets
3. Dispersible Tablets: These are the film coated or unhcoated tablets which form an uniform dispersion when suspended in water
.(6) Dispersible Tablets
4. Effervescent Tablets: These are the tablets which are uncoated and are intended to be dissolved and produce an dispersion before they are administered the dissolution is achevied by the reaction between an organic acid and bicarbonate which produce CO2, thus produced CO2 will disintegrate the tablet so which dissolves in the solution to produce an suspension which is rapidly absorbed.
(7) Effervescent Tablets
(8) Effervescent Tablets
5. Modified-release Tablets: These are the coated or uncoated tablets which are designed in such a way that the rate or location of the active ingredient released is modified. It includes enteric coated tablets, prolong release tablet, delay release tablet.
Enteric-coated Tablets: these are also called as gastro resistant tablets as they are resistant to the gastric juices, these are formulated by coating the tablet with anionic polymer of methylacrylic acid and their esters or by coating with cellulose acetyl pthylate
Ex: erythromycin, NSAI DS,
Prolonged- release Tablets: these are also called as sustain release tablets or extended release tablets is formulated in such a way that the active ingredient is released for a prolong duration of time and is available in systemic circulation after administration.
6. Soluble Tablets: These are coated or uncoated tablets which are dissolved in water before they are administered.
7. Tablets for Use in the Mouth: these are the tablet formulations which are intended to be show local action in the buccal cavity.
These include buccal tablet , Sublingual Tablets, Troche or lozenges.
Buccal tablets are placed in between the cheek and gingival,
Sublingual tablets are placed underneath the tongue eg: glyceryl trinitrate.
(11) sublingual tablet
8. Tablets for other routes of administration: these include implantable tablets, vaginal tablets, these are inserted in to the rectum or vagina for their local or systemic action.
The tablet formulations have the following advantage (3):
These are easy and very convenient to use
As these are unit dosage form fixed dose is administered
Unstable API, bitter tasting tablets can be formulated as coated tablets which mask the bitter taste and are safe guard the API
Modified drug release rate and duration tablets can increase the therapeutic effect and increase the patient compliance by reducing the frequency of drug administration.
These are very inexpensive dosage forms when compared to other dosage forms
The physical stability, microbial stability, and chemical stability of tablet are superior to other dosage forms.
Disadvantages of tablets are:
The systemic availabity of the drug depends on many physiological factors
The onset of action is less when compared to IV route. (except sublingual tablets)
Geriatric and children's of small age cannot swallow the tablets.
This blog is free from plagiarism
- Indian pharmacopoeia 2007 volume II page number 44- 47
- Pharmaceutical dosage form and design by david jones pharmaceutical press 2008 edition pg.no-203-210