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Pharmacology Articles

An Overview of Rapid Microbial-Detection Methods

Traditional methods of microbial detection tend to be labor-intensive and take more than a day to yield results. Rapid methods for microbial detection can be sensitive, precise, and quick. Yet the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries have been slow to embrace these techniques. To understand rapid microbial-detection methods better, Pharmaceutical Technology discussed the benefits, application, and challenges they entail with Orla M.
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Pharmaceutical Technology, Mar 1, 2010
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Effects of sex hormones on regulation of ABCG2 expression in the placental cell line BeWo

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of sex hormones that are secreted during gestation from the placenta on ABCG2 mRNA and protein expression levels by using the placental cell line BeWo. METHODS: We investigated the effects of estrogens (estrone, 17-β-estradiol and estriol) on the expression level of ABCG2 mRNA by RT-PCR. The expression level of ABCG2 protein was analyzed by Western blot analysis. We also investigated the localization of ABCG2 in BeWo cells by Western blot analysis of the plasma membrane fraction and by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: It was found that all estrogens induce the expression of ABCG2 mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that 17-β-estradiol induces the expression of ABCG2 protein.

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J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 9(1) January - April 2006
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The role of nitric oxide and protein kinase C in lipopolysaccharide-mediated vascular hyporeactivity

Abstract PURPOSE: Overactivation of nitric oxide and protein kinase C (PKC) pathway has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular hyporesponsiveness of endotoxic shock. In this study we investigated the role of nitric oxide and PKC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated vascular hyporeactivity. METHODS: Contraction to phenylephrine and endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation in the presence and absence of a nonspecific NO inhibitor (L-NAME) and potent PKC inhibitor (chelerythrine) were examined.

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J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 9(1) January - April 2006
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Permeability enhancing effects of the alkylglycoside, octylglucoside, on insulin permeation across e

Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the permeability enhancing effects of octylglucoside (OG) for molecules with poor absorption such as insulin by in vitro cell models. METHODS: Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was monitored to ensure monolayer integrity. Permeability was ascertained using paracellular markers. Markers and insulin were dissolved in Hanks balanced salt solution and placed on the apical side of the cells in Transwell® plates and allowed to diffuse under sink conditions. RESULTS: The effect of OG on the permeability of molecules across both monolayers was concentration and time dependent. Enhanced transport of the three molecules was observed across both monolayers treated with OG as compared to untreated monolayers.

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J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 9(1) January - April 2006
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Evaluation of antimetastatic activity and systemic toxicity of camptothecin-loaded microspheres in m

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this work was to evaluate the pulmonary antimetastatic activity and the systemic toxicity of camptothecin-loaded microspheres. Methods: PCL microspheres containing camptothecin (CPT) were prepared by the emulsion solvent/evaporation method and characterized according to their encapsulation efficiency, particle size, morphology, and drug release. The ability of CPT to inhibit the lung metastasis was verified using an experimental mouse model intravenously injected with metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells. The microspheres and the free drug were given intraperitoneally at a dose of 7 mg/kg at intervals of three or five days for 24 days.

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J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 9(1) January - April 2006
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Effects of water deprivation on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8159, a new erectogenic, in rats

ABSTRACT. Purpose: To test the effect of 72 h water deprivation on the non-renal clearance (CL) of DA-8159 in a rat model of dehydration. DA-8159 is mainly metabolized via CYP3A1/2 and the expression and mRNA level of CYP3A1/2 are not affected by dehydration. Methods: DA-8159 (30 mg/kg) was administered intravenously or orally to male control Sprague–Dawley rats and rat model of dehydration. Results: As expected, after intravenous administration, the CLNR values of DA-8159 were comparable between two groups of rats.

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Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 9(1) January - April 2006
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Safranal, a constituent of crocus sativus (saffron) attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative d

Abstract Increased oxidative stress has been implicated in the mechanisms of delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemic insult. In this study, we investigated whether safranal, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. stigmas, may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. Male NMRI rats were divided into six groups, namely, sham, control, ischemia and ischemia treated with safranal (four groups). The transient global cerebral ischemia was induced using four-vessel-occlusion method for 20 min. Safranal was injected intraperitoneally (727.5 mg/kg, 363.75 mg/kg, 145.5 mg/kg, and 72.75 mg/kg body weight) 5 min. prior to reperfusion and the administration was continued every 24 hours for 72 hours after induction of ischemia. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of hippocampus (using FRAP assay) were measured.

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J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 8(3) September - December 2005.
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Protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (crocus sativus l.) and crocin, its active constituent,

Abstract PURPOSE. The generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation are associated with tissue injury following ischemic insult; therefore, the use of antioxidants appears rational in the improvement of kidney diseases therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on oxidative stress following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. METHODS. The cellular redox status (thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total thiol levels) and antioxidant power (using ferric reducing/antioxidant power test) were assessed in control and ischemic groups. The left kidney was exposed to warm ischemia for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 90 min.

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J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 8(3) September - December 2005
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