The word SHOCK is generally used as an intense emotional reaction to a stressful situation or a news. Medically it is defined as a condition when the body tissues do not receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients for the cellular functions. (1)
It is also defined as the life threatening medical condition of inadequate perfusion of tissues which are insufficient to meet the metabolic needs. (2)
Perfusion is a process of blood entering into tissues. When perfusion does not occur properly it is called hypoperfusional state. Shock is generally called as circulatory shock. It is different from emotional state of shock. (2)This leads to cell death, organ failure and finally leads to death. It also causes hypoxia and cardiac arrest.(1)
Signs of severity :(2)
Based on physical signs it is divided into 4 grades
Grade 1: 15% of loss of blood volume. Leads to tachycardia
Grade 2: 15%- 30% loss of blood volume. Leads to moderate tachycardia and narrow blood pressure.
Grade 3: 30%-40% loss of blood volume. Causes hypotension, tachycardia and low Urine output
Grade 4: 40%-50% los of blood volume. Leads to organ damage and death.
Types of shock: (2)
- Hypovolaemic shock
- Cardiogenic shock
- Obstructive shock
- Septic shock
- Neurogenic shock
- Anaphylactic shock
- Endocrine shock
Hypovolaemic shock: (3) It occurs due to loss of 20% blood loss and fluid depletion due to vomiting, diarrhoea, burns.
Cardiogenic shock: (3) It occurs due to inadequate cardiac output caused by arrhythmia, ischaemic heart Diseases, cardiomyopathy etc.
Obstructive shock: (2) It occurs due to loss of circulating blood volume,dur to increased jugular venous pressure.
Septic shock: (3) It occurs due to systemic infections. Sepsis is manifested by tachycardia, decreased peripheral resistance, increased cardiac output.
Neurogenic shock: (3) It occurs due to sudden painful stimuli, anxiety.manifested by fainting and Bradycardia.
Anaphylactic shock: (3) It occurs due to drugs, insect bites, foods .characterized by pruritis, urticaria, angioedema, abdominal cramps, and diarrhoea.
Endocrine shock: (3) It occurs due to endocrine disturbances like hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, acute adrenal insufficiency.
Symptoms of shock: Low blood pressure, rapid shallow breathing, cold, clammy skin, dizziness etc.
- www.emedicinehealth.com > ... > first aid & injuries az list -
- www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shock_(circulatory) -