Needleless Injection System

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Intoduction:

Needleless injection system is one of the most recent advances done in administration of medication. It is the system through which we can directly administer the drug through the skin without piercing it. It is more efficient, easy to use, economical and less painful even. The drug can be dispersed through the skin in the form of fine mist in which the drug is introduced with the burst of air to cross the skin and enter blood. For e.g. patients requiring growth hormone.

Disadvantages of injectables:

1. Relatively high cost of the needles which results in reduced vaccination

2. Lack of reusability.

3. Painful method of drug administration.

History

The hypodermic needle was first developed by Alexander Wood in1853 which was used to administer morphine for patients suffering from sleep disorders. But there were certain drawback associated with this route of administration thus needle free injection system was developed later during 1940 and 1950s. Now these devices are gun shaped and used propellant gases to propel or drive fluid drugs into the blood stream. These devices can be modified according to the type and amount of medication with better efficiency.

Design

It is composed of three components:

1. Injection device

2. Disposable needle free syringe and

3. Air cartridge. It is designed as such that it is suitable for self administration and easy to use. The device is made of plastic and syringe is sterilized because it is the part that comes in the direct contact with the skin. The used syringe is then disposed off. Transferable units consist of pressurized metal air cartridges. Instead of pressurized air cartridges some devices utilize spring to generate the pushing force, these devices are also called as air forced system. .Raw Materials

The raw material used should be:

1. Pharmacologically inert and non reactive.

2. Able to tolerate high temperatures.

3. The outer shell of the device is made from polycarbonate which is having good strength and light weight.

4. Fillers are added to make the polymer easier to mould, light weight and durable.

5. Colorants are also used to alter the appearance.

6. Carbon dioxide or helium gas to drive or push the medication into the blood stream.

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Some medicines are preferably administered through needleless injection system. For e.g. Insulin, which is given daily to the diabetics, can use needleless system in the form of inhaler, Lidocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetics, Fentanyl, an opioid analgesic, and Heparin an anticoagulant can be used as needleless preparations.

Manufacturing Process

It is done under sterile condition and includes:

Making the pieces: The first step is the production of the components of the needleless system from plastic pellets by a process known as injection moulding, all the plastic pellets are put into the injection moulding machine, the material is then passed through the nozzle into the mold which is made up of two halves in which the plastic is under pressure for some time and then allowed to cool when helps in hardening of the plastic. After setting of the plastic it is passed to the conveyors and checked manually for any kind of damage.

Assembling and labelling: The next step is assembling all the parts together and the markings are applied with the help of machines so as to show dosage level, the process is done very precisely and for his purpose machines are specially calibrated.

Packaging: It is done under sterile condition to prevent spread of disease and the device is wrapped with plastic or sterile film and then put in cardboard boxes so that the movement is minimum and damage is also minimum. The boxes also contain instruction manual and safety guidelines for the patient.

Quality Control

Visual inspections are done and then measuring equipment is used to check the dimensions including size and thickness of the device. Labelling and printing is also verified. Since safety considerations forms the important part for drug administration the device should meet the Food and Drug Administration standards and specifications.

Dermo jet is the recently and most widely used needleless injection system formulated by Robbins Instruments.

Dermo-jet "Model G"

Source: http://www.robbinsinstruments.com/equipment/dermojet/djsub1.html

This instrument is patented, clinically tested, high velocity and micro jet emitting for needle less administration which is used as local anaesthetic in the dosage of 1/10cc. Volume. Using the Dermo jet involves loading and filling the Dermo jet, making an interdermic papule and then giving the injection. References:

http://www.robbinsinstruments.com/equipment/dermojet/djsub1.html cited on April2010

http://www.answers.com/topic/needle-free-injection-system cited on April2010

http://www.robbinsinstruments.com/equipment/dermojet/injectorheads.html cited on April2010

This article does not contain any plagiaried material

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About the Author

Sona Singh's picture
Author: Sona Singh

Comments

Uma Pratyusha's picture

Hi Sona, You have given us a valuable and a complete information on needleless injection systems and it is really useful for people who are afraid of needles! Can you tell me if this is in use in India and if so,what is its cost parameter? Also, I like to know if there would be a wastage of the medicament when forcing through the tissue?

Regards

Uma Prathyusha

Prof. J. Vijaya Ratna's picture

Dear Sonia Good information on a new topic. Well done. Vijaya Ratna
Meghna Datta's picture

Very informative and very well presented. Meghna Team Wisdom
Jigard Patel's picture

Dear Sona, Nice blog. For injecting the preparation , the gas like carbon dioxide and helium is used why not others?? Is there any impact of gas in the body or not ?? Via applying the pressure is there any chances of puncturing the vein or not?? Regards, Jigar Patel Team : " INVINCIBLE "
S.M. Habibur rahman's picture

Good information on newer technologies. What are countries using this technology in practice and whats its impact in Indian community.
TK Indira's picture

hello sona, good blog. 1> Can you explain the conditions to be maintained during manufacturing???what should be the optimum air pressure to be maintained? 2> we are going for moulding of plastic materials so what method of sterilization will be more appropriate? 3> how about the microbial load?what should be the minimal count of load to be maintained?

T.K. Indira. http://www.pharmainfo.net/tkindira

-- "Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall..." Team 'Char'minar.

D Shravani's picture

Hi Sona, Are all drugs suitable to formulate as the above??? Can i know the criteria or the prerequisites a particular drug should have to dress up as needle free injection...

Regards,
Shravani
Team:"CHAR"MINAR
http://www.pharmainfo.net/dshravani

V.B.S.Aishwarya's picture

Hi sona, Good blog. What makes it more painful in adminstration?? Is it the disadvantage as the case of needles or anything else? Is it beeing used in India Regards,

Regards

V.B.S.Aishwarya

 

 

 

Amol Malpani's picture

Dear Sona, Good attempt I must say. try to find some more references. Lots of information available. Can you put light on spacer used in such type of drug delivery? What about the multiuse and disposable injectors? Regards,
Niklesh Rao V's picture

Dear Sona,

A good blog. From what I could understand from your blog, the dose is directly reaching the blood stream without the use of a hypodermic needle? I assume the dose level to be a very limited one, say about 0.5 ml. Can you mention the maximum dose that can be administered by this technology. One more thing is how can suspensions or oily injections be delivered by this method?

Regards, Niklesh Rao V