Introduction to literature review

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LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING

What is a literature review?

The aim of a literature review is to show your reader (your tutor) that you have read, and have a good grasp of the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field. This work may be in any format, including online sources. It may be a separate assignment, or one of the introductory sections of a report, dissertation or thesis. In the latter cases in particular, the review will be guided by your research objective or by the issue or thesis you are arguing and will provide the framework for your further work. What is the Purpose of a Literature Review? * To demonstrate your scholarly ability to identify existing relevant information and to outline existing knowledge. * To identify the 'gap' that is present between existing studies or previous studies, in the research that your study is attempting to address, positioning your work in the context of previous research and creating a 'research space' for your work.[1] * To evaluate and synthesise the information in line with the concepts that you have set yourself for the research. * To produce a rationale or justification for your study. * To avoid unnecessary duplication * To evaluate promising research methods.[2] Initially, when you start literature review, you may have to read quite broadly on the topic to enrich your understanding of the field. This is useful for refining your topic and establishing the perspective that your research will take. For example, reading broadly may help you work out where there are gaps in the research, which may provide you with a platform for your research. It may also enable you to establish how your research extends or enhances the studies already done [1]. It is very important to note that your review should not be simply a description of what others have published or done in the area of your research scope in the form of a set of summaries, but should be represented in the form of a critical discussion, showing insight and an awareness of differing arguments, theories and approaches. It should be a synthesis and analysis of the relevant published work, linked at all times to your own purpose and rationale [2]. Points to be consider during literature review: What are the key theories, concepts and ideas? What are the basic and fundamental grounds for the discipline? What are the main questions and problems that have been addressed to date? How is knowledge on the topic structured and organised? How have approaches to these questions increased our understanding and knowledge? What are the origins and definitions of the topic? What are the major issues and debates about the topic? What are the key sources? [1]

STRUCTURE OF LITERATURE REVIEW

* Identify your research question. This is essential in helping to direct you in appropriate direction to search for previous works and researches and frame your reading. * Identify and locate appropriate information. Source of information can be scholarly journals, government documents, published works, peer reviewed articles from reliable sources. Depending on the research question or aim relevant information that supports ones research work should be searched. * Read and critically evaluate the information that you locate. Examine its strengths and weaknesses in relation to your research. Take notes of not only the information that you read, but also your thoughts about this information. This will help you draw your ideas together when you start writing your literature review section. * File and store your readings and notes. Use an effective method that lets you retrieve information quickly and easily. Remember that there is no one 'right' way of organising your materials. However, it is important to know the literature that you have found and where you have stored it, so that you can access it quickly and easily. * Plan, organise and write critically about the literature that you have located. After identifying and collecting relevant information and previous works in discipline of your research, you need to organise and plan on how to review those works in connection with how critical that information is linked to your study. [1] Before writing literature review one should understand that the kind of vocabulary they use in reflecting their ideas and views on the previous works is very critical. Linking words are important. If you are grouping together writers with similar opinions, you would use words or phrases such as: similarly, in addition, also, again More importantly, if there is disagreement, you need to indicate clearly that you are aware of this by the use of linkers such as: however, on the other hand, conversely, nevertheless At the end of the review you should include a summary of what the literature implies, which again links to your hypothesis or main question. [2]
Continued
HOW TO WRITE A REVIEW ARTICLE

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About the Author

Aravindsai's picture
Author: Aravindsai

Comments

Sirisha Pingali's picture

At last i m able to figure out the major difference between review and research article. Thank you sir for this great presentation. So we,the graduates can write the review article on any topic,any no.of times. Is it right?? Also can you let me know the site where we can publish review articles?? Is a guide required in presenting review/research articles??

Sirisha Pingali

http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha

Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

www.vnips.edu.in

Aravindsai's picture

You can publish here in the pharmaceutical reviews journal

regards,
Aravindsai

Mukul Kogata's picture

hello sir I am mukul kogata, b.pharm graduate and registered for online workshop on literature review i got email on 19th nov. with a link for virtual training room i forward throuh that link but i cant find any presentation link on that page thank you

Mukul Kogata

Admin 123's picture

Please check now. You should be able to view now.
Pratyesh's picture

Hello Sir, The presentation is very good. It explains that what is the basic difference between review and research work and what not to do to prepare our research article. I suggest that, If you can go in depth of the research article preparation in the section of how to prepare a body. Although magazines provides the guidelines about how to create the article, but I want general idea. Thanks, Pratyesh Somani

Jr. Executive-QA & RA Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

Aravindsai's picture

If you mean showing practically, please wait till the second part

regards,
Aravindsai

Dabhi Mahesh's picture

hello sir I am, Mahesh Dabhi,registered for online workshop on literature review Its very nice presentation and gives clear idea about the review and research literature. There are some questins in my mind - Now a day so many research journals are publishing online as well as hard copy research and reveiw article. How one can consider that its authantic source or not?

Dabhi Mahesh Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360 005, GUJARAT, INDIA.

Aravindsai's picture

Sorry for the late reply, Please wait till the second part where we discussed about validity of data

regards,
Aravindsai

Kushal Prajapati's picture

Good Basic Information. Audio could have been better. I need more suggestions and tips on selection of sources for writing review. As there are tons of journals, books, websites, as said in hand-out, sometimes one gets side-tracked and confused. Even diversity of available material is so large that author gets confused on what he should narrow down and what to omit! And what about assignment? I cant find any instructions regarding that...

Kushal Prajapati

G N S HEMA SREE's picture

Hello Sir, The presentation was very informative. Til now i have no clear idea regarding the literature review. Now I can understand what does it mean. But I have a query to be cleared, geting the information about a topic is very easy these days but how to know that which one is the correct and authentic.Is there any difference between scholary article and review article? Please explain with example so that I can get a clear view on it.

G.N.S.Hemasree

Aravindsai's picture

Scholarly article can be a research article or a review article. To avoid confusion check the meaning of scholar (a learned person (especially in the humanities); someone who by long study has gained mastery in one or more disciplines) Scholar is not restricted to write research or review.

regards,
Aravindsai

Aravindsai's picture

Thanks to all for giving your feedback, Though you find many articles and journals, its authenticity depends on the author who wrote it, it can be a preferred source if the author is an expert in the field. And a practical procedure is given in the second part (first part is introduction/orientation) of the the work shop, please wait till the second part for complete information.

regards,
Aravindsai

Sandeep Talele's picture

HELLO SIR! sEMINAR IS NICE ONE.....CAN YOU TELL ME; HOW TO CITE MAGAZINE REFERENCE OR INTERNET REF IN RESEARCH ARTICLE.
Aravindsai's picture

To get trained in referencing we need to run a separate workshop, since the theory behind it is vast. For temporary purpose you gen use reference generators available online http://www.neilstoolbox.com/bibliography-creator/reference-website.htm You can use this link to generate reference.

regards,
Aravindsai

chiragkparmar's picture

Hello sir, Very comprehensive Presentation. My doubt is what are the "Gaps" which is mentioned in the slide Number 9? And what kind of problems can we encounter while we are working on literature review? Final Year B. Pharm Bombay College OF Pharmacy, Mumbai
Aravindsai's picture

Gaps in the slide you mentioned is about the incomplete works, or the questions which are not answered through the researchers did.

regards,
Aravindsai

chiragkparmar's picture

and sir what kind of problems can we encounter while we are working on literature review? Final Year B. Pharm. Bombay College OF Pharmacy, Mumbai Chirag K. Parmar
Aravindsai's picture

general challenges are: Proving how the topic you searched is relevant to topic you chose. Organizing the literature (lack of ability to inter-link the research works) Improper conclusion.. (after interlinking the works you must be able write about future implications ) As you go through many article its easy to get distracted, as result there might be no co-relation between the topic you chose.

regards,
Aravindsai

Mr Sita Sharan Patel's picture

sir how to prepare Protocol for my m.pharm Project .

pradeep kumar reddy

Aravindsai's picture

Hi Pradeep, The intended purpose of this workshop is for review writing. To avoid confusion to other users we should not discuss about protocol writing here. Post an entry in the ask a question section (http://www.pharmainfo.net/node/add/questions). I am happy to answer.

regards,
Aravindsai

Priti Ppednekar's picture

Hello sir, It was a great presentation.Thanks for such a good guidance regarding rview articles. Sir my doubt is how many references we generally require to look for a good literature review? Also while writing literature review when to summarize content (theory, experiments and its result) of published source and when one should merely refer it?? Thanks, Regards, Priti P. Pednekar Final Year B. Pharm Bombay College of Pharmacy, Mumbai

Priti P. Pednekar

Aravindsai's picture

There might be 100's of articles in particular area, you need not have to review all those. It is suggested to cover a snapshot of all recent works. The number of articles reviewed for a research project can be 200 or more (varies on need). For a review project (which you write to give an update to readers) has no restrictions. It also depends on the extent of work done in the topic you choose. I mean to say there is no specific number of articles to be referred

regards,
Aravindsai

vishnupriya.kaliki's picture

Hello sir , the presentation was much informative and helpful a lot in writing the research papers and review papers . in the 18 slide u had mentioned that review should not be a laundry list of research articles what did it mean clearly i want an idea, because recently i had seen one review regarding "multivarient methods in the experimental designing which it involves the list of updated reseach artcles in the body of review according to slide a review it should nt be like that as nu told .pls clarify the doubt . thanking you, vishnupriya.kaliki

vishnupriya

Aravindsai's picture

"review is not just listing all the research works" What I meant there is you should not "just" list out all the works, there should be logical sequence (i explained this in organize your literature part of workshop) Example: If you write an article on antibiotics, you should start with how they are discovered, what happened after discovery and what is happening in antibiotic discovery now and what will it lead to (impact on next generations or what is future scope) This is a logical sequence. But do not just list all the works with out any order/organization. Give a proper conclusion or summary. Hope you understood what i mean.

regards,
Aravindsai

pankajbagul's picture

Hi Sir, Thank you for such a nice and informative seminar. it was very useful for me. I have a question, i got two research articles showing exactly opposite results and after reading i found both of them to be right as per their views. so while writing review how should i cover both points of them. please suggest me. thank you.

Pankaj Bagul M.S Pharm NIPER HYDERABAD

Aravindsai's picture

Yes, in review you should include arguments and you suggestions on whose work is better (if you can provide your explanations for that)

regards,
Aravindsai

Rabia Naveed's picture

sir i didnt get the slide

rabia

Admin 123's picture

Were you you unable to view presentation ?
Rabia Naveed's picture

i ve seen only 9 slides after that slides are not coming

rabia

Admin 123's picture

Probably due to slow internet connection. Please wait to load all presentation slides before you click first time
G N S HEMA SREE's picture

Sir, U said that topic or the information collected to be narrowed can u elaborate this point so that I can get the clear view- What are the key points to be covered, What to be left.How we have to submit the assignment( can you give me the email)?

G.N.S.Hemasree

Aravindsai's picture

What i meant there is , When you start with a basic concept in your mind, for example "Anti microbial effect of plant extract", here you have to browse thousands of articles because there are 1000s of plants and 1000s of microbes, as a result you can never get a proper conclusion. So you should narrow your topic to a specific plant and specific microbe, so that you can write a better conclusion. If your concept is already narrow , you might NOT have to narrow it again, But always try to be specific when you are writing a review

regards,
Aravindsai

Rabia Naveed's picture

sir my question is that how can we differentiate between the review of artcle and review of research?\ and in the slide it is said that the review article also predict the advancements and same as in case of research?

rabia

Aravindsai's picture

All that we are speaking about is Literature review which is to review of research works in a particular area , so can be called as research review. Review is you conclusion(assumption) of where the things might go. In a research article (not research review) you do some work and publish your results. You do literature review to avoid repetition of same works and expand your knowledge. But the concept of review remains same here. To avoid confusion assume that there are only two types of articles review article and research article.

regards,
Aravindsai

Harsh bansal's picture

hello sir its really a nice presentation can i download it if possible ?? how can i do it?? thank you sir

harsh bansal

Harsh bansal's picture

sir, i do not understand slide no 16. please elaborate it.. thank you

harsh bansal

Aravindsai's picture

It is interlinking research works. You should be able to write in the review, how the research started in that topic, how and by whom it is bought forward and how the original founders work helped others to start their work. Consider a scientist worked on a topic and made made some conclusion as "A", another scientist after him work on the topic taking some ideas from "A" and lead to conclusions "b". You must be able to demonstrate how the both are interlinked. Did i confuse you more? Or did you understand what i said?

regards,
Aravindsai

Harsh bansal's picture

sorry sir i did not get your point

harsh bansal

Aravindsai's picture

Simply its means that you have ability to interlink the research works and show how they are related to topic you chose. Did u get it now?

regards,
Aravindsai

Harsh bansal's picture

ya... sir i think now i near it thank you

harsh bansal

G N S HEMA SREE's picture

Sir, Recently I searched for the topic "Pharmacosomes" but I have found the articles giving the same information.I have searched nearly 50 articles but I have found the same. If this is the case how to get the elaborated literature and how to find the authentic one for reference among those articles?

G.N.S.Hemasree

Aravindsai's picture

This usually happens when you keep reading review article, As we discussed review articles have up to date information, so many review articles on same topic contain same matter. Research works will not be repetitive, If there is a repetition of research work that might be due to a strong reason (though some times may lead to same conclusions). So think you are looking at reviews rather than research works. In the module we have shown how to identify and distinguish research and review articles.

regards,
Aravindsai

Aravindsai's picture

Google the author name of the article. If the author is an expert his result will be in the search results. How ever even if the editorial board of journal are experts the source can be considered as authentic. But give author first preference.

regards,
Aravindsai

Harsh bansal's picture

sir you said that be care full with encyclopaedias in slide no 6 sir may u explain it please??? and sir i also want to know that in your last slide you said about plagiarism,, so sir how we can writ without plagiarism???? thank you

harsh bansal

Aravindsai's picture

This is specially about encyclopedias like Wikipedia which are community edited. Authenticity of the source depends on the author, where as in wikipedia any one can be a author. You should be able to avoid plagiarism (showing others work as your work) or else you will be subjected to legal proceedings for violating copyrights. Do your own work dont show others work as your. If you use data from other source please indicate clearly that it is the work of the authors and not yours . I will explain this clearly in second part of workshop

regards,
Aravindsai

Harsh bansal's picture

OK sir its fine i got the point thanks for it thank you

harsh bansal

Amol Malpani's picture

Hi, I am very happy to see plenty of comments and your active response and clarification for all these. One difficulty I find when I was trying to publish review for some reputed journal for one article, reviewer mostly asking a question related to provide support of your research work for that particular topic. In that particular case, if UG or other person who wish to write review without experience of actual research work related to that field. How one can write and publish in reputed journal? Regards,

Aravindsai's picture

Providing support to your work can be done by referencing properly. This is what they meant. If you havent got experience just browse through several review articles and try to use the style they used.

regards,
Aravindsai

Amol Malpani's picture

Dear Sir, They ask for your experience in that particular area or related area which you wish to write a review. Regards,
Aravindsai's picture

In general Review writers do not need research experience. Anyway different journals have different rules.

regards,
Aravindsai

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